The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. states in February 1861, seven Southern slave states were declared by partisans to have seceded from the country, and a Confederate States of America was organized in rebellion against the U. The two remaining slave states, Delaware and Maryland, were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed due to intervention by federal troops.
They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. The Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit, the last surrender on land occurring June 23.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war.
The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
The strategy of the anti-slavery forces was containment—to stop the expansion and thus put slavery on a path to gradual extinction.
Southern whites believed that the emancipation of slaves would destroy the South's economy, due to the large amount of capital invested in slaves and fears of integrating the ex-slave black population.
Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and iron-clad ships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively.
The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation, and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War I, World War II, and subsequent conflicts. From 1861 to 1865, it is estimated that 620,000 to 750,000 soldiers died, The causes of secession were complex and have been controversial since the war began, but most academic scholars identify slavery as a central cause of the war. Bradford wrote that the issue has been further complicated by historical revisionists, who have tried to offer a variety of reasons for the war.
During the Reconstruction era that followed the war, national unity was slowly restored, the national government expanded its power, and civil and political rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights, and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery.
In the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. The three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A.