Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology, -logia).
Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic description of books as objects (descriptive bibliography).
A notable example of a complete, independent publication is Gow's, A. Housman: A Sketch, Together with a List of His Classical Papers (1936).
As separate works, they may be in bound volumes such as those shown on the right, or computerized bibliographic databases.
Descriptive bibliographers follow specific conventions and associated classification in their description.
Bibliography A Book
Titles and title pages are transcribed in a quasi-facsimile style and representation.Enumerative bibliographies are based on a unifying principle such as creator, subject, date, topic or other characteristic.An entry in an enumerative bibliography provides the core elements of a text resource including a title, the creator(s), publication date and place of publication.Fundamentally, analytical bibliography is concerned with objective, physical analysis and history of a book while descriptive bibliography employs all data that analytical bibliography furnishes and then codifies it with a view to identifying the ideal copy or form of a book that most nearly represents the printer's initial conception and intention in printing. He describes the nature of bibliography as "the discipline that studies texts as recorded forms, and the processes of their transmission, including their production and reception" (1999 12).In addition to viewing bibliographic study as being composed of four interdependent approaches (enumerative, descriptive, analytical, and textual), Bowers notes two further subcategories of research, namely historical bibliography and aesthetic bibliography. Mc Kenzie extended previous notions of bibliography as set forth by W. This concept broadens the scope of bibliography to include "non-book texts" and an accounting for their material form and structure, as well as textual variations, technical and production processes that bring sociocultural context and effects into play.The word bibliographia (βιβλιογραφία) was used by Greek writers in the first three centuries AD to mean the copying of books by hand.In the 12th century, the word started being used for "the intellectual activity of composing books".Bibliographic works differ in the amount of detail depending on the purpose and can generally be divided into two categories: enumerative bibliography (also called compilative, reference or systematic), which results in an overview of publications in a particular category and analytical or critical bibliography, which studies the production of books.In earlier times, bibliography mostly focused on books.Illustration, typeface, binding, paper, and all physical elements related to identifying a book follow formulaic conventions, as Bowers established in his foundational opus, The Principles of Bibliographic Description.The thought expressed in this book expands substantively on W. Greg's groundbreaking theory that argued for the adoption of formal bibliographic principles (Greg 29).