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Individual institutions and organizations may choose to adhere to the stricter PHS standard of ,000.Professional societies and journals are another important source for guidance on the management of conflicts of interest.
With increased media, governmental, and public scrutiny, a researcher's reputation, research funding, and employment can depend as much on perceptions of integrity as on integrity itself.
Examples of non-financial interests that might conflict with the integrity of science include: Another potential conflict can come in the form of conscience.
An individual might suffer a conflict of conscience if, for example, the mission or expectations of the institution are incompatible with his or her personal values.
The most relevant of these are federal regulations, notably those of the Public Health Service (PHS) and National Science Foundation (NSF).
According to the Code of Federal Regulations (PHS, 2011), the PHS conflict of interest requirement "promotes objectivity in research by establishing standards that provide a reasonable expectation that the design, conduct, and reporting of research funded under Public Health Service (PHS) grants or cooperative agreements will be free from bias resulting from Investigator financial conflicts of interest." Investigators are required to disclose any Significant Financial Interests, which are defined as: "any remuneration received from the entity in the twelve months preceding the disclosure and the value of any equity interest in the entity as of the date of disclosure, when aggregated, exceeds ,000." "the occurrence of any reimbursed or sponsored travel (i.e., that which is paid on behalf of the Investigator and not reimbursed to the Investigator so that the exact monetary value may not be readily available), related to their institutional responsibilities." NSF conflict of interest requirements (NSF, 2016) are largely similar although current guidelines set a threshold of ,000 for a significant financial interest.