Consonant Epenthesis

Consonant Epenthesis-85
That may well produce impermissible final clusters.In some cases, the problem was resolved by allowing a resonant to become syllabic or inserting a vowel in the middle of a cluster: Proto-Germanic akraz "field, acre" (French montre "watch" (clock)).

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The three short syllables in reliquiās do not fit into dactylic hexameter because of the dactyl's limit of two short syllables, so the first syllable is lengthened by adding another l.

However, this pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification.

Other examples exist in Modern Persian in which former word-initial consonant clusters (which were still extant in Middle Persian) are regularly broken up: Middle Persian brādar Modern Persian (Iran) sotūn "column"; modern borrowings are also affected.

In the Western Romance languages, a prothetic vowel was inserted at the beginning of any word that began with /s/ and another consonant: Latin spatha "sword" modern épée.

Something similar happened in Sanskrit, with the result that a new vowel -i or -a was added to many words.

Another possibility is when a sound change deletes vowels at the end of a word, a very common sound change.An example in an English song is "The Umbrella Man", where the meter requires that "umbrella" be pronounced with four syllables, um-buh-rel-la, so that "any umbrellas" has the meter ány úmberéllas. Epenthesis often breaks up a consonant cluster or vowel sequence not permitted by the phonotactics of a language.Sporadic cases can be less obviously motivated, however, such as warsh 'wash' with an extra r in some varieties of American English, Hamtramck is pronounced 'Hamtramick' as if there were an extra i.The Dutch city of Delft is pronounced /DEL-lift/ by its inhabitants.Georgian often breaks up its consonant clusters with schwas.A limited number of words in Japanese use epenthetic consonants to separate vowels.An example of this is the word harusame of ame; note that this is a synchronic analysis (using current forms to analyze an irregularity).As for a diachronic (historical) analysis, since epenthetic consonants are not used regularly in modern Japanese, it is possible that this epenthetic , "unfolding" in Greek, anaptyctic), is also known by the Sanskrit term svarabhakti.Some accounts distinguish between "intrusive vowels", vowel-like releases of consonants as phonetic detail, and true epenthetic vowels, which are required by the phonotactics of the language and acoustically identical with phonemic vowels.Many languages insert a so-called prop vowel at the end of a word to avoid the loss of a non-permitted cluster.This cluster can come about by a change in the phonotactics of the language so final clusters are no longer permitted.

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