Critical Thinking Aqa

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There are basic skills like walking and running and jumping; and there are advanced skills like gymnastics or woodwork or piano playing.

It doesn't make much sense to talk about jumping 'well' unless you mean jumping a significant distance, or clearing a high bar, or somersaulting in mid-air and landing on your feet. But even when the challenge is met, there is still more to be said about the quality of the performance.

Expressing a preference or stating a fact are not in themselves thinking skills.

There are language and communication skills involved, of course, and these are very considerable skills in their own right.

If a student can solve a difficult problem, within a set time, that is usually judged as a sign of greater skill than solving an easier one.

However, when it comes to assessing the quality of someone's thinking, matters are more complicated.Cambridge Information on this title: © Cambridge University Press 2005, 2013 This publication is in copyright. Contents Unit 1 1.1 Thinking and reasoning Thinking as a skill 1 1.2 An introduction to critical thinking 7 1.3 Solutions not problems 13 Unit 2 2.1 Critical thinking: the basics Claims, assertions, statements 16 2.2 Judging claims 21 2.3 Argument 28 2.4 Identifying arguments 33 2.5 Analysing arguments 38 2.6 Complex arguments 43 2.7 Conclusions 50 2.8 Reasons 58 2.9 Assumptions 63 2.10 Flaws and fallacies 70 Unit 3 3.1 Problem solving: basic skills What do we mean by a 'problem'? 82 3.3 Selecting and using information 86 3.4 Processing data 90 3.5 Finding methods of solution 93 3.6 Solving problems by searching 98 3.7 Recognising patterns 102 3.8 Hypotheses, reasons, explanations and inference 106 3.9 Spatial reasoning 112 3.10 Necessity and sufficiency 116 3.11 Choosing and using models 119 3.12 Making choices and decisions 123 Unit 4 4.1 Applied critical thinking Inference 126 4.2 Explanation 137 4.3 Evidence 144 4.4 Credibility 150 4.5 Two case studies 156 4.6 Critical thinking and science 163 Contents iii 4.7 Introducing longer arguments 170 4.8 Applying analysis skills 177 4.9 Critical evaluation 183 4.10 Responding with further argument 191 4.11 A self-assessment 195 Unit 5 5.1 Advanced problem solving Combining skills - using imagination 205 5.2 Developing models 211 5.3 Carrying out investigations 220 5.4 Data analysis and inference 225 Unit 6 6.1 Problem solving: further techniques Using other mathematical methods 231 6.2 Graphical methods of solution 235 6.3 Probability, tree diagrams and decision trees 240 6.4 Have you solved it?Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. 246 Unit 7 7.1 Critical reasoning: Advanced Level Conditions and conditionals 249 7.2 Soundness and validity: a taste of logic 254 7.3 Non-deductive reasoning 262 7.4 Reasoning with statistics 269 7.5 Decision making 279 7.6 Principles 287 7.7 An argument under the microscope 295 7.8 Critical writing 301 Answers to assignments 311 Appendix 342 Acknowledgements 344 Index 345 Unit 1 Thinking and reasoning 1.1 Thinking as a skill This book is about thinking. It is about those kinds of thinking that take conscious effort, and which can be done well or badly.If I am asked whether I would like coffee or tea, I don't have to exercise skill to reply appropriately.Similarly if I am asked a factual question, and I know the answer, it takes no skill to give it.One of the two may simply have known the answer, or have learned a mechanical way to obtain it - or 1.1 Thinking as asw " : even just guessed it.The other may have worked it out independently, by reasoning and persistence and imagination. Google(); req('single_work'); $('.js-splash-single-step-signup-download-button').one('click', function(e){ req_and_ready('single_work', function() ); new c. Thinking Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Second edition John Butterworth and Geoff Thwaites Thinking Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Second edition Cambridge UNIVERSITY PRESS CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.Mental performance is largely hidden inside a person's head, unlike physical performance which is very visible.If two students give the same right answer to a question, there is no telling from the answer alone how it was reached.


Comments Critical Thinking Aqa

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