Since the publication of Pollis and Schwab’s Human Rights: Cultural and Ideological Perspectives in 1979, human rights universalists and cultural relativists have collided in regard to legality and applicability of human rights outside the West within civil society.
The extreme of which is that the idea of human rights is in many cases, as opposed to the ideas and values of non-Western countries.
In the case of the universality of human rights, there are some challengeable situations along with the implementation and perception of human rights.
As a result, The Declaration expressed a novel denotation to the word “universalism.” The fundamental values and principles highlighting the concept of human rights are of a universal character.
Thus, these values and principles referred to the concept of individual liberty and freedoms, the belief in democracy and political rights, the acknowledgment of social and economic rights.
In our current world, human rights are based on two predominant approaches in accordance with regions-East and West, North and South.
One of them is universalism, another is cultural relativism.All human beings are the possessor of these civil rights, independent from what they actually do, where they come from, where they reside and from their national citizenship, their community, etc.“The universality of human rights is rooted in and also manipulated by the other characteristics of human rights: human rights are categorical (every human being has these rights, they cannot be denied to anyone), democratic (also called egalitarian-every human being has the same rights), individual (human rights apply to every human being as individual and protect the latter from violations by a collective recognizing at the same time the important role of a collective for the individual, they have their own rights to provide themselves sufficiently in social community, such as freedom of living, speech and etc), fundamental (human rights protect basic and essential elements of human continuation) and indivisible (the whole catalog of human rights must be respected, they are complimentary)”. It would be necessary to emphasize that promoting democracy, providing human rights, individual liberty, national self-determination, and the other values were noted on Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen-point program.Thus, what is the crux of cultural relativism within civil society?Cultural relativism is the vision that all beliefs, traditions, and morals are in respect to the person inside of his own social setting.The main crux of universalism is the implementation of universal sets of norms, and values along with not only Western countries, but also Eastern, Asian and The Middle Eastern countries, where cultural relativism (mainly moral relativism) dominates and contains its moral and ethical values over people of these countries.Universal human rights are based on Western ideology.“To a large extent, universality is one of the indispensable descriptions of human rights.From this perspective, human rights are civil rights that apply to all humankind and are therefore referred to universal values and rules.It has been argued that universalism on human rights merely referred to Western Imperialism.It put forward some challenges in accordance with the main priorities and prospects of universal human rights.