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The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4% per act, with an average of 0.8%.The risk of acquiring HIV from a needle stick from an HIV-infected person is estimated as 0.3% (about 1 in 333) per act and the risk following mucous membrane exposure to infected blood as 0.09% (about 1 in 1000) per act.
Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting with an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection.
Between 50 and 70% of people also develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, characterized by unexplained, non-painful enlargement of more than one group of lymph nodes (other than in the groin) for over three to six months.
Preventive treatment involves the mother taking antiretrovirals during pregnancy and delivery, an elective caesarean section, avoiding breastfeeding, and administering antiretroviral drugs to the newborn.
If a woman is untreated, two years of breastfeeding results in an HIV/AIDS risk in her baby of about 17%. Due to the increased risk of death without breastfeeding in many areas in the developing world, the World Health Organization recommends either: (1) the mother and baby being treated with antiretroviral medication while breastfeeding being continued (2) the provision of safe formula.
In the United States more than 1.1 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, and about 44 percent of all new infections are among African Americans.
In Asia sharp increases in HIV infection have occurred in China and Indonesia.Since 1981 about 35 million people have died from HIV infection.In the early 21st century, however, the annual number of new infections began to decrease, and since about 2005 the annual number of AIDS-related deaths globally has also declined.Nonetheless, a 2016 United Nations report on AIDS suggested that the decline in annual new infections had plateaued, and disparities in HIV incidence, AIDS-related deaths, and access to treatment were evident within countries and between regions, different age groups, and males and females.Africa, and in some countries of the region the prevalence of HIV infection in the adult population exceeds 10 percent.But more-detailed characterization was needed to confirm the connection, so Montagnier sent samples to American virologist Robert C.Gallo, who had contributed to the discovery of the first known human retrovirus (human T-lymphotropic virus) several years earlier.Gallo helped establish that HIV caused AIDS, and he contributed to the subsequent development of a blood test for its detection.Montagnier initially called the new infectious agent lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV), but in 1986 the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses renamed it HIV.Sexual assault is also believed to carry an increased risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely worn, physical trauma to the vagina or rectum is likely, and there may be a greater risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections.Blood-borne transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment.