Consequently, the research presented below was largely based on a similar, but not identical, conceptualization of mood disorders drawn from the (APA, 2000).
In a nationally representative sample, lifetime prevalence rate for MDD is 16.6% (Kessler, Berglund, Demler, Jin, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005).
Bipolar II Disorder is characterized by single (or recurrent) hypomanic episodes and depressive episodes.
Another type of BD is cyclothymic disorder, characterized by numerous and alternating periods of hypomania and depression, lasting at least two years.
Criteria for PDD are feeling depressed most of the day for more days than not, for at least two years.
At least two of the following symptoms are also required to meet criteria for PDD: Like MDD, these symptoms need to cause significant distress or impairment and cannot be due to the effects of a substance or a general medical condition.
She vividly describes experiencing a sense of “doom” and “dread” in response to her newborn baby.
Because motherhood is conventionally thought of as a joyous event and not associated with sadness and hopelessness, responding to a newborn baby in this way can be shocking to the new mother as well as those close to her.
To meet criteria for PDD, a person cannot be without symptoms for more than two months at a time. If someone meets criteria for an MDE during a PDD episode, the person will receive diagnoses of PDD and MDD. Bipolar I Disorder (BD I), which was previously known as manic-depression, is characterized by a single (or recurrent) manic episode.
A depressive episode is not necessary but commonly present for the diagnosis of BD I.