Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation, and is the essence of secondary industry.The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial design, in which raw materials from primary industry are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.
These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.
The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made.
These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs.
The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other more complex products (such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles), or distributed via the tertiary industry to end users and consumers (usually through wholesalers, who in turn sell to retailers, who then sell them to individual customers).
Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product.
Biological agents, including microorganisms and toxins produced by living organisms, can cause health problems in workers.
Influenza is an example of a biohazard which affects a broad population of workers.