Other costs were per client costs based on case data.
Cost estimates were based on the assumption that immigrants behave like the rest of the population, after adjusting for income. Data on revenue sources included Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), federal income, unemployment insurance, and excise taxes; state income, excise, gas, and sales taxes; lottery ticket sales; and local sales and property taxes (with the assumption that one-half of the property tax is paid by the tenant).
First, unlike the other fiscal impact studies the workshop examined, the cost estimates took into account revenues from federal and state governments, thus including the offsetting effect of intergovernmental transfers.
The study also has a reasonably clear presentation of data sources, methodology and results, and could likely be replicated by other analysts.
persons who were granted lawful immigration status by the federal government under various statutes of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
Undocumented persons are foreign-born persons who are not in the country under a lawful immigration status.
Citizen children of undocumented immigrants are children under age 18 who were born in the United States and whose mothers are undocumented persons.
Workshop participants also pointed out several weaknesses of the Los Angeles County study.
Finally, even if the studies had accurately measured the level of job displacement in Houston in the 1980s, the phenomenon of job displacement is so locally sensitive that the studies' results for Texas cannot be generalized to the nation (see U. General Accounting Office, 1995, for a complete discussion).
Although the Huddle studies did attempt to be comprehensive, to measure net costs, and to estimate prospective public sector costs of legal and illegal immigration, workshop participants noted several problems.