International Review Of Business Research Papers Indexing

International Review Of Business Research Papers Indexing-56
In the developing countries, FDI has grossly concentrated among a few nations.For instance, over 90 percent of FDI had flown to eighteen developing countries, and half of which was claimed by eight South-east Asian countries (Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand). Especially, the success of ASEAN-5 may be attributed to a host of business environmental factors that include sound economic fundamentals and macroeconomic performance, economic, social and political stability, buoyant economy with high capacity, expanding domestic markets, favorable natural Mithani, Ahmad & Saifudin 251 factor environment, particularly natural resources, labor supply and availability of other business resources along with conducive macroeconomic policies (Bhatt, P. In the South-East Asia, Malaysia has emerged as a promising developing nation characterized with high institutional quality, excellent physical infrastructure, and large public investments in education, so also consistent commercial policy, sound macroeconomic management and a high degree of openness, investment promotion and efficiency, thus attracting a high level of FDI inflows over the years.

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Malaysia, on the whole, represents a rising trend of FDI inflows over the years since 1970.

From the bottom of US$ 94 million FDI inflows in 1970, the Malaysian economy had received a peak level of US$5741 million FDI inflows in 1996.

Its share in the ASEAN FDI inflows, thus, increased from 25 percent to 35 percent.

The rising trend in the flow of FDI in the country may be attributed to the policy shift and growing market orientation of the country.

In the case of country s M&As purchases had an average of US$ 525 million during , it has reached to a peak of US$ 3685 million in There was a substantial decrease in 2004, amounting US$ 816 million. Mithani, Ahmad & Saifudin 254 Table: 3 Malaysia Cross-border Merger and Acquisitions (M & As), Overview: US$ Million Year Sales Purchases (Annual Average) Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report, It is heartening to note that there has been a rising trend in outward investment flows of Malaysia in recent years.

It has a quantum jump from US70 million in 2003 to US$ 2971 million in In Malaysia, Petronas Petroliam National Berhad has made remarkable achievements globally.Mithani, Ahmad & Saifudin 252 Table: 1 FDI Flows: World, ASEAN and Malaysia (US $ Million) Years World ASEAN Malaysia * 14500** 3203** Sources: UNCTAD, World Investment Reports, 1998, 2002, 2004, 2006 * Ministry of International Trade and Industries, MITI Report, 2003, ** Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN Economic Report 2005 5.Current Scenario in the ASEAN Setting Mithani, Ahmad & Saifudin 253 Data in Table - 2 portrays the ASEAN-5 scenario regarding the FDI inflows.As such, it is worthwhile to examine its growth characteristics through FDI in the light of FDI inflows in its development process, performance and prospects. A Synoptic Select Literature Review Mithani, Ahmad & Saifudin 250 Incidentally, available studies on FDI in Malaysia seemingly have tackled various issues in segregation and most of them have been descriptive in nature.Some have focused on the ASEN region and made a peripheral reference to Malaysian situation.In 2005, Singapore claimed the highest FDI inflows amounting to USD 20,083 million worked out to be 14.2 % of the total world FDI inflows and claiming 59% share in the total FDI inflows in the entire ASEAN region.On the other hand, Indonesia claimed USD 5,260 million as against USD 3963 million FDI inflows in Malaysia.Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report, In recent years, cross border Merger and Acquisitions (M&As) activity caused increasing share of a country in the expanding global FDI inflows.Table - 3 refers to the data on cross-border M&As purchased by Malaysia during It shows that from the bottom of US$ 220 million average during the amount of the cross border M&As sales of the country had gone up to a peak level at US$ 1454 million in 2005.Bhatt (2000), for instance, presents a generalized account and empirical analysis of the trends and pattern as well as determinants of FDI flows in the ASEAN countries. J (1994) observed an inverse savinginvestment correlation in Malaysia over the period This is attributed to public sector investment and FDI. Khan (2005) traced the role of some macroeconomic variables such as market size, openness of the economy, interest rates, and other factors, such human capital formation and information in attracting FDI into ASEAN-4 Countries and observed that the market size, interest rate, and exchange rates trend to be significant influencing factors.Hill (1990) furnished an explanation to this by saying that Malaysian authorities might have preferred FDI to local nonindigenous (non-bumiputeras) investment to check the racial economic imbalance in the country. In the seventies and eighties, Malaysia was regarded as the most attractive place for FDI in the region. Methodology and Research Design The main focus of the present study aimed to provide a comprehensive study of recent Malaysian experience in FDI since In particular, this paper has three-fold objectives.


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