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But even sciences investigating scales more familiar to us, like biological evolution, are nonintuitive and uncomfortable to the point of being rejected by surprising numbers of people despite overwhelming scientific consensus spanning nearly a century and a half.Thinking philosophically requires the capacity to logically and rigorously engage ideas and then either accept the results or reject our assumptions – no matter how nonintuitive or how uncomfortable those assumptions may be.
Further, Harris's entire argument rests in part upon his ability to articulate an objective nadir, an absolute minimum, in that space – the maximum possible suffering of every sentient creature.
The entire moral landscape can be thus thought of as a partially ordered set of moral positions together with their resultant consequences as measured on hypothetical metric related to well-being and suffering.
He argued for determining human values scientifically.
The metaphorical moral landscape itself is most easily comprehended by picturing multidimensional topographies in which some measure of flourishing and suffering ranges in the vertical and peaks and troughs can be visualised as local maxima and minima.
If you want to be a good philosopher, don’t rely on intuition or comfort. They’ll allow you access the best methods we have for knowing the world while teaching you to think clearly and analytically.
Mathematics is the philosophical language nature prefers, and science is the only truly effective means we have for connecting our philosophy to reality. and 1, are simply two ways to express the same thing.Mathematics is an ideal tool for teaching this as it is deeply abstract and simplifies reality nearly to the point of ignoring it.This does not mean that mathematics mathematics is always important for good philosophy, though it certainly can be.This Email Newsletter Privacy Statement may change from time to time and was last revised 5 June, 2018.“History is always on the move, slowly eroding today’s orthodoxy and making space for yesterday’s heresy.” Discuss the extent to which this claim applies to history and at least one other area of knowledge.For instance, consider the application of basic set theory to linguistics.Set-theoretic thinking – particularly, the applications of subset relations, intersections and unions, set inclusion, and even the relevant mathematical notation to modifiers such as adjectives, adverbs, and participial phrases – has proven fruitful in helping linguists clarify the relationships between words and the classes of ideas they represent.This application has allowed a more precise, deeper understanding of the ways that different uses of words create meaning in sentences and thus a capacity for clearer and richer expressions of ideas, including philosophical propositions.It has done so despite the fact that linguistics is not nearly as mathematically dependent as fields like physics.Our senses tell us that a table, for example, is a solid object; science tells us that the table is mostly empty space.Thus two sources of knowledge generate conflicting results. Mathematicians have the concept of rigorous proof, which leads to knowing something with complete certainty.