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This type of coating leads to forming of capsules called a reservoir structure, where the particles are coated by a layer.Using this technique, the lipid material is sprayed at temperatures above its melting points onto a template to constitute the shell.
As the particles spread on the disk, a thin film of shell material is applied.
When they move toward the edge of the rotating disk through centrifugal force, the particles leave apart from the fat film and microcapsules of core-shell are formed Various techniques are now available to protect single nutrients from ruminal degradation, some of which were briefly discussed above.
In designing a fat-coated product, an active ingredient is either embedded in a lipid matrix or prepared in small spheres, then coated with lipid material.
In general, coating fats consist of fatty acids with a melting point of ≥40 ºC and having at least 14 carbon atoms.
The capsule density can be conveniently adjusted by varying the ingredients forming the core of the capsule, e.g.
through the addition of a high-density weighing agent such as kaolin, chromium sesquioxide, or barium sulfate.
This review will briefly discuss some aspects of microencapsulation, such as the wall material, core ingredients, encapsulation techniques, and some of their uses in ruminants’ feed technology.
Originally, most methods related to encapsulation dealt with the protection of hydrophilic compounds such as choline, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, enzymes, carbohydrates, drugs, and hormones.
The product obtained from this process is called microencapsulate, and it includes both microspheres and microcapsules.
Microcapsules are particles consisting of an inner core containing the active substance, which is covered with a polymer layer constituting the capsule membrane.